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> Kambyzes II: co się z nim stało ??
Rommel 100

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post 3/09/2006, 17:14 Quote Post

Czytam książkę "Historia Persji" i coś mnie zastanowiło. Po Cyrusie władze w Persji przejął Kambyzes II. Wyruszył on na podboj Egiptu i w trakcie podboju wybuchło powstanie Gaumaty. Potem autor opisuje powstanie i przęjecie władzy przez Dariusza, ale nie wspomina nic o Kambyzesie. Wiecie co sie z nim stało?
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post 3/09/2006, 18:05 Quote Post

Zdania historyków starożytnych były w tym względzie podzielone. Herodot i Ktezjasz pisali o jego śmierci z ran po nieszczęśliwymwypadku, według Herodota w syryjskiej Ektabanie (Hamath) - nie mylić ze stolicą Persji. Ktezjasz wymienia jako miejsce śmierci Babilon.

Tradycja perska (propaganda Dariusza) o śmierci samobójczej jako reakcji na zrozumienie faktu, że nie zdoła pokonać zbuntowanego Gaumaty.

Niestety, nie znalazłem w sieci polskiej wersji Herodota, znalazłem jednak odpowiedni fragment w angielskiej (księga III, 64):

64. Then
Cambyses, when he heard the name of Smerdis, perceived at once the
true meaning of this report and of the dream, for he thought in his
sleep that some one had reported to him that Smerdis was sitting upon
the royal throne and had touched the heaven with his head: and
perceiving that he had slain his brother without need, he began to
lament for Smerdis; and having lamented for him and sorrowed greatly
for the whole mishap, he was leaping upon his horse, meaning as
quickly as possible to march his army to Susa against the Magian; and
as he leapt upon his horse, the cap of his sword-sheath fell off, and
the sword being left bare struck his thigh. Having been wounded then
in the same part where he had formerly struck Apis the god of the
Egyptians, and believing that he had been struck with a mortal blow,
Cambyses asked what was the name of that town, and they said
"Agbatana." Now even before this he had been informed by the Oracle at
the city of Buto that in Agbatana he should bring his life to an end:
and he supposed that he should die of old age in Agbatana in Media,
where was his chief seat of power; but the oracle, it appeared, meant
in Agbatana of Syria. So when by questioning now he learnt the name of
the town, being struck with fear both by the calamity caused by the
Magian and at the same time by the wound, he came to his right mind,
and understanding the meaning of the oracle he said: "Here it is fated
that Cambyses the son of Cyrus shall end his life.
65. So much only
he said at that time; but about twenty days afterwards he sent for the
most honourable of the Persians who were with him, and said to them as
follows: "Persians, it has become necessary for me to make known to
you the thing which I was wont to keep concealed beyond all other
things. Being in Egypt I saw a vision in my sleep, which I would I had
never seen, and it seemed to me that a messenger came from home and
reported to me that Smerdis was sitting upon the royal throne and had
touched the heaven with his head. Fearing then lest I should be
deprived of my power by my brother, I acted quickly rather than
wisely; for it seems that it is not possible for man[55] to avert that
which is destined to come to pass. I therefore, fool that I was, sent
away Prexaspes to Susa to kill Smerdis; and when this great evil had
been done, I lived in security, never considering the danger that some
other man might at some time rise up against me, now that Smerdis had
been removed: and altogether missing the mark of that which was about
to happen, I have both made myself the murderer of my brother, when
there was no need, and I have been deprived none the less of the
kingdom; for it was in fact Smerdis the Magian of whom the divine
power declared to me beforehand in the vision that he should rise up
against me. So then, as I say, this deed has been done by me, and ye
must imagine that ye no longer have Smerdis the son of Cyrus alive:
but it is in truth the Magians who are masters of your kingdom, he
whom I left as guardian of my household and his brother Smerdis. The
man then who ought above all others to have taken vengeance on my
behalf for the dishonour which I have suffered from the Magians, has
ended his life by an unholy death received from the hands of those who
were his nearest of kin; and since he is no more, it becomes most
needful for me, as the thing next best of those which remain,[56] to
charge you, O Persians, with that which dying I desire should be done
for me. This then I lay upon you, calling upon the gods of the royal
house to witness it,--upon you and most of all upon those of the
Achaemenidai who are present here,--that ye do not permit the return
of the chief power to the Medes, but that if they have acquired it by
craft, by craft they be deprived of it by you, or if they have
conquered it by any kind of force, by force and by a strong hand ye
recover it. And if ye do this, may the earth bring forth her produce
and may your wives and your cattle be fruitful, while ye remain free
for ever; but if ye do not recover the power nor attempt to recover
it, I pray that curses the contrary of these blessings may come upon
you, and moreover that each man of the Persians may have an end to his
life like that which has come upon me." Then as soon as he had
finished speaking these things, Cambyses began to bewail and make
lamentation for all his fortunes. 66. And the Persians, when they saw
that the king had begun to bewail himself, both rent the garments
which they wore and made lamentation without stint. After this, when
the bone had become diseased and the thigh had mortified, Cambyses the
son of Cyrus was carried off by the wound, having reigned in all seven
years and five months, and being absolutely childless both of male and
female offspring. The Persians meanwhile who were present there were
very little disposed to believe[57] that the power was in the hands of
the Magians: on the contrary, they were surely convinced that Cambyses
had said that which he said about the death of Smerdis to deceive
them, in order that all the Persians might be moved to war against
him. These then were surely convinced that Smerdis the son of Cyrus
was established to be king; for Prexaspes also very strongly denied
that he had slain Smerdis, since it was not safe, now that Cambyses
was dead, for him to say that he had destroyed with his own hand the
son of Cyrus.
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post 3/09/2006, 18:23 Quote Post

Dzięki Eumenes, teraz bede musial poczytać Herodota.
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Zbigniew Jazienicki
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post 26/08/2007, 8:42 Quote Post

Bardziej przybliżam się do wersji skaleczenia mieczem w udo przez Kambyzesa. Wówczas chcąc ukarać swego młodszego brata Bardija, jechał do Ekbatany. W ranę wdała się gangrena i Kambyzes zmarł. Jeżeli chodzi o jego młodszego brata Bardija, to już za panowania Kambyzesa cieszył się on dużym poparciem. Wpływ na to miało szczególnie "dziwne" zachowanie Kabyzesa.
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