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> The partitions of Poland, Why it happened?
     
Rothar
 

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post 6/06/2006, 20:08 Quote Post

In 1772, 1793 and 1795 Three Black Eagles (Russia, Prussia and Austria) decided to divide up Polish and Lithuanian territory among themselves. In 1795 there was no more Polish sovereign state.

These three countries each time had a casus belli, but now I have another, problematic question - why during the second part of the Eighteenth Century, Poland became so dangerous for them, that they decided to crush Poland's sovereignty?

There were clear signs, that Poles tried to improve their political situation - the growing military strength of the Commonwealth, political revival, etc. Maybe this was the main reason.

But - was it just a greed for new, rich territories or something other made Russia, Austria and Prussia do it?
 
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zinek2005
 

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post 26/01/2008, 11:53 Quote Post

In my wiev, They had done that, because they were afraid about raising of polish power. New low and probably new organization decided to attack to poland. It's only my hypothesis:D
 
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post 2/02/2008, 11:11 Quote Post

In fact, the Kingdom of Poland was weak in XVIII century.
This is the main reason of our 'tragedy'.
Austria and Prussia just take the occasion then. The Russian empire was the only hostile country.
 
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post 2/02/2008, 20:41 Quote Post

There is many reasons this tragic situation. But in my opinion ones is very important. Russia was afraid Polish power. Prussia and Austria was located in western Europe but Russia was far far away at east. Russia wants to join to central or western Europe. Strong and large Poland was hindrance for this target.
 
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Esme
 

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post 20/02/2008, 14:07 Quote Post

In my opinion, greed had a lot to do with it. From the point of view of the three countries (Austria, Russia and Prussia) this was just yet another step to strengthen their empires. Do tell me if I'm wrong, but I suppose that if Poland was any of those countries, us being replaced by either Austira, Russia, or Prussia (a funny notion), then Poland would seize the chance also. What more, it was dangerous for each of the countries, the strengthening of two foes (allies - yeah, right)by Polish lands.

Also, the first partition - Marie Therese, Emperess of Austria co-ruled with her son, if my memmory does not decieve me. I suppose this does not add much to our discussion, but she was againt the Partition. Of course, in the end, she did allow it.

Russia... Ah, Russia. I don't know about Prussia (as far as I'm concerned, they had no innovative reasons for attacking Poland), but Tsarina Catherine II was all for. A bit of a hypocritical one, but she was a great ruler, if 'great' means expanding her country, etc. An enlightened tyran, I do not think she was scared of Poland's power. We really were weak back then. Sad, but true.

Conclusion: I vote for greed, and certaintly not for the trembling in face of the Oh-So-Great-And-Terrible-Polish-Army. Of course, from the POV of their countries - it was a very good move. That they crushed another country while doing so... Well, it happens.


Cheers,
Esme


EDIT: I do agree with Lu Tzy.
 
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post 27/03/2008, 16:23 Quote Post


They feared poland , could prevent imperial plans of these countries.
 
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post 2/08/2008, 14:37 Quote Post

The irony is that when Poland was helpless, neigbouring states had nothing againts its existence. The strife begun with the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski and reforms that were even prior to the general election. Furthermore Poland was perceived as a country subordinated to Russia, with the king who was chosen for request of Katharine II, his former lover. No one dared, what seems logical, to engage in Polish matters in order not to come in conflict with mighty country on the East. But some of the polish nobles were much rebellious and decide to set up a union geared to get rid of Russian forces from the country. They met in a hamlet of Bar, Ukraine, and fixed a programme of their campaign. Their main objective was to restore aurea libertas, all the privileges they had because of their noble descent. They strongly advocated Roman Catholic Church and put Maria on their banners, believing that with divine help they might be succeeded in the fight. At the outset of uprising, Russian thought they can annihilate their foes on their own and in some way they underestimated polish zeal. In conjuction with the war with Turkey, the war prolonged much and was put to an end after 4 years. At that point Russians understood that to maintain their control in whole country is beyond their power, so they agreed with the suggestion of Frederick the Great to divide Poland between three powerful neighbours. Empress of Austria, Maria Teresa, at first did not want to consent for that malevolence as she was pious lady, but the Pope himself confirmed that there was nothing wrong with dismember weaker country so finally all three countries reached an agreement. To conclude, they just could not afford Poland to make progress and reinforce the army. They condoned the existence of weak Poland, but any ideas of altering this state had to met with a strong opposition and uproar. So it was.
 
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post 4/10/2008, 17:22 Quote Post

QUOTE(Lu Tzy @ 2/02/2008, 12:11)
In fact, the Kingdom of Poland was weak in XVIII century.
This is the main reason of our 'tragedy'.
Austria and Prussia just take the occasion then. The Russian empire was the only hostile country.
*



Yeah...

Russia was hostile, whereas Austria and Prussia were very friendly. biggrin.gif That's why they participated in the partitions: to save people from Warsaw, Gdansk and Poznan from Russian threat. biggrin.gif

It reminds me of Joseph Stalin, who wasn't hostile at all. On 17th Sept 1939 he just took care of peaceful Belarussians and Ukrainians threatened by the Germans.
 
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post 23/06/2011, 16:22 Quote Post

It passed two long years when the last post was written, however, I wanted to return to the discourse. I feel obliged to write my own impression about the partitions of Poland.

In my humble opinion every single country has a decrease of its power in history. To show that this statement is not incorrect I can give many many examples of: France in the early XV century, England in the middle of XVII century, Poland during all XVIII century, Prussia in the middle of XVIII and in the early XIX century, Russia at the beginning of XVII century, etc. None of these states were erased from the political map of Europe except one country - Poland.

Why it happened?

I wish we had had more luck. Two black eagles had risen too quickly and unexpectedly. Their both politics was settled to conquer and gain the imperial position in the Europe. Prussia was born to annex and Russia was reformed to follow slowly the western path of development. We lost our chances to reform and exit the stagnation during late XVII century. Moreover, we overslept nearly sixty years in the XVIII century. Neighbors of us did not make the same mistake. Russia won war against Sweden and gained its imperial position, same thing to Pussia state which successfully annexed Silesia and gained "several things to say in this part of Europe". It is horrible that we omitted and could not prevent the rise of our worst grave-digger - Prussia.

When we finally woke up it was too late. We had totally fallen in arms of Russia and became a small Slavic brother. After election of SAP in 1764 and introducing "cardinal law" in 1768 it was clear that we had lost our sovereignty. Could you even imagine how shocking it had been for people who always thought of Polish greatness? This "stream" could no longer accept this situation - it was believed that they could win easily and regain the independence. Nowadays we suggest that they were absolutely wrong - in fact - partly.

Russia was not strong enough to settle with the tiny uprising. It lasted four long years and showed that Poland could not be controlled without any foreign help. It was clear Frederick the Great waited to grab Polish lands and received his chance. The precedent of partition has been created.

Look at map after the first partition. Do you see any strange fragments? I see.
Look carefully at Gdańsk and small cutaway nearly to Greater Poland. The new field of annexation was determined to be in the future. Prussia had appetite for more lands. sad.gif

To be continue. smile.gif

Ten post był edytowany przez Piegziu: 23/06/2011, 16:22
 
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Piegziu
 

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post 25/06/2011, 13:01 Quote Post

Welcome back after two days.

The main Polish problem was to settle the right path of diplomacy during late XVIII century. After the first partition we wisely "hugged" with Russia which was in fact our unique guarantor of borders. Even after first annexation Prussia was eager to make another partition but it was still too weak to made its own move against Russian will. Austria made out that Galicia is useless for her. As a participant of the first partition she eventually strengthened her worst enemies - Prussia and Russia. On the other side she weakened her favorable and non-problematic neighbor. This mistake will cost Austria the loss of its position in XIX century...

We were too impatient and hotblooded. Required reforms could not be made in instant because of political situation in Europe. Many positive changes were made with Russian permission. This is where I see the chance to survive as a weak puppet, however, developing and developing economy and education. I wish everybody could understood it and waited for proper time...

Enacting the 3rd May Constitution we angered our unique guarantor of borders. We preferred to be divided rather and live under yoke than live partly as free nation. Stupid choice. I do not want to argue if war in 1792 was possible to win. I think that after our move in 1791 we have chosen to be divided. Russia could not control Polish lands so she accepted Prussian idea of second partition. The last one was a formality. The execution of problematic and chaotic "carcass".
 
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post 30/06/2011, 18:58 Quote Post

I think that the main reason of Poland's fall were our nobilities, who made King give them several privileges, but they gave nothing in return, resulting in the partitions of Polish country. When the government (and they were sort of government, which had bigger power than even the King himself) doesn't work properly, we shouldn't expect the country to work properly!
 
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post 7/07/2011, 6:36 Quote Post

QUOTE(Rothar @ 6/06/2006, 21:08)
In 1772, 1793 and 1795 Three Black Eagles (Russia, Prussia and Austria) decided to divide up Polish and Lithuanian territory among themselves. In 1795 there was no more Polish sovereign state.

These three countries each time had a casus belli, but now I have another, problematic question - why during the second part of the Eighteenth Century, Poland became so dangerous for them, that they decided to crush Poland's sovereignty?
*



I would say that Poland ceased to be any danger to them and this is why they have to destroy Polish state.

QUOTE(Rothar @ 6/06/2006, 21:08)
There were clear signs, that Poles tried to improve their political situation - the growing military strength of the Commonwealth, political revival, etc. Maybe this was the main reason.

But - was it just a greed for new, rich territories or something other made Russia, Austria and Prussia do it?
*



Every feudal power has a natural greed to conquest more and more. Poland as a weak state became an easy target to conquest. The main reason of that were internal political conditions of Poland. Poland became a corrupted country. It is the easiest answer, but there were many forms of corruption and reality was not as simple as that.
 
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